Recent Advance in Animal and Feed Technology to Support Sustainable Livestock Production System(Recent Advance in Animal and Feed Technology to Support Sustainable Livestock Production System)

Volume agropustaka : , Januari 2018
Penulis :
Institusi :

Environmental scientists have agreed that world is experiencing a slow but steady increase in global temperatures. Studies in the last few decades have shown that there was an increase in the global temperature by about 1.5o C over the last 50 years, and that if global warming is not mitigated we will be experiencing higher temperatures in the next fifty years to come. High temperatures can affect not only the productivity of animals but also can lead to increased breeding of certain animals and possibly extinction of animals. Crops and feed production with be affected due extreme weather conditions (such as drought, floods and heat wave) that arise from the high temperatures. It has been established that global warming is caused by greenhouse gases that are produced as a result of human activities although natural emission of GHGs are also contributing to the global warming. GHGs include carbon dioxide, methane ozone, CFCs and others. With the increase in world population it is inevitable that global temperature will be on the increase as a result of increased in human activities. The factors that contribute to the GHGs include methane gas emission from animals and livestock activities, factories, automobiles and also natural organic decomposition. Agricultural activities that increase GHGs include clearing of forests, livestock production, aquaculture and fodder and feed crops cultivation and undoubtedly the generation of energy from fossil fuel for machineries. 


Kategori : Hasil Penelitian
Kelompok : Teknologi proses
Bahasa : Indonesia

Abstract

Environmental scientists have agreed that world is experiencing a slow but steady increase in global temperatures. Studies in the last few decades have shown that there was an increase in the global temperature by about 1.5o C over the last 50 years, and that if global warming is not mitigated we will be experiencing higher temperatures in the next fifty years to come. High temperatures can affect not only the productivity of animals but also can lead to increased breeding of certain animals and possibly extinction of animals. Crops and feed production with be affected due extreme weather conditions (such as drought, floods and heat wave) that arise from the high temperatures. It has been established that global warming is caused by greenhouse gases that are produced as a result of human activities although natural emission of GHGs are also contributing to the global warming. GHGs include carbon dioxide, methane ozone, CFCs and others. With the increase in world population it is inevitable that global temperature will be on the increase as a result of increased in human activities. The factors that contribute to the GHGs include methane gas emission from animals and livestock activities, factories, automobiles and also natural organic decomposition. Agricultural activities that increase GHGs include clearing of forests, livestock production, aquaculture and fodder and feed crops cultivation and undoubtedly the generation of energy from fossil fuel for machineries. It is known that ruminant‟s produces methane gas through rumen microbial fermentation and is expelled to the atmosphere through the process of eructation. Scientists have estimated that as much as 18% of GHGs from agriculture activities is attributed to ruminant production sector. For future sustainable livestock production, animals must be kept in efficient housing systems, fed available feedstuffs that are renewable, employing practical precision feeding, with low fossil energy inputs. Green technology will be used for farm activities to reduce waste and use of fossil energy. Animal nutritionists can play an important role in reducing the methane production by increasing the efficiency of livestock production through manipulation of rumen fermentation, precise feeding and the use of natural additives as growth promotants. From the holistic point of view, global warming issues in livestock production can be addressed in terms of mitigation of emission of GHGs (slow down global warming) and adaptation to the changing climate. For mitigating GHGs emission research need to be conducted in breeding animals for heat tolerance, improved efficiency in terms of reproduction and feed utilization, controlled environment and disease control. Biotechnology in crop science has produced crops that are heat, insect and fungus tolerant, and therefore have paved the way the future crops will look like. These GMO crops will play major roles in the future to providing food for people and animals. Production of GMO crops will need to be regulated so that they do not present threats to the human health. Efficiency in livestock production encompasses the production systems, feeding strategies and reproduction. As new varieties/breeds of animals are being introduced into developing countries, these animals need to be adapted to new environment. New housing systems need to be developed (with low energy input) to overcome high temperatures and heat stress. Feeding formulated diets designed to reduce heat stress is an important step towards precision feeding of animals. In fact, precision feeding (that is feeding exactly to what the animal needs) leads to high efficiency, low waste production and reduce 



Aplikasi praktis

Environmental scientists have agreed that world is experiencing a slow but steady increase in global temperatures. Studies in the last few decades have shown that there was an increase in the global temperature by about 1.5o C over the last 50 years, and that if global warming is not mitigated we will be experiencing higher temperatures in the next fifty years to come. High temperatures can affect not only the productivity of animals but also can lead to increased breeding of certain animals and possibly extinction of animals. Crops and feed production with be affected due extreme weather conditions (such as drought, floods and heat wave) that arise from the high temperatures. It has been established that global warming is caused by greenhouse gases that are produced as a result of human activities although natural emission of GHGs are also contributing to the global warming. GHGs include carbon dioxide, methane ozone, CFCs and others. With the increase in world population it is inevitable that global temperature will be on the increase as a result of increased in human activities. The factors that contribute to the GHGs include methane gas emission from animals and livestock activities, factories, automobiles and also natural organic decomposition. Agricultural activities that increase GHGs include clearing of forests, livestock production, aquaculture and fodder and feed crops cultivation and undoubtedly the generation of energy from fossil fuel for machineries. It is known that ruminant‟s produces methane gas through rumen microbial fermentation and is expelled to the atmosphere through the process of eructation. Scientists have estimated that as much as 18% of GHGs from agriculture activities is attributed to ruminant production sector. For future sustainable livestock production, animals must be kept in efficient housing systems, fed available feedstuffs that are renewable, employing practical precision feeding, with low fossil energy inputs. Green technology will be used for farm activities to reduce waste and use of fossil energy. Animal nutritionists can play an important role in reducing the methane production by increasing the efficiency of livestock production through manipulation of rumen fermentation, precise feeding and the use of natural additives as growth promotants. From the holistic point of view, global warming issues in livestock production can be addressed in terms of mitigation of emission of GHGs (slow down global warming) and adaptation to the changing climate. For mitigating GHGs emission research need to be conducted in breeding animals for heat tolerance, improved efficiency in terms of reproduction and feed utilization, controlled environment and disease control. Biotechnology in crop science has produced crops that are heat, insect and fungus tolerant, and therefore have paved the way the future crops will look like. These GMO crops will play major roles in the future to providing food for people and animals. Production of GMO crops will need to be regulated so that they do not present threats to the human health. Efficiency in livestock production encompasses the production systems, feeding strategies and reproduction. As new varieties/breeds of animals are being introduced into developing countries, these animals need to be adapted to new environment. New housing systems need to be developed (with low energy input) to overcome high temperatures and heat stress. Feeding formulated diets designed to reduce heat stress is an important step towards precision feeding of animals. In fact, precision feeding (that is feeding exactly to what the animal needs) leads to high efficiency, low waste production and reduce 


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